Prof. Ramey Interviews Mitsutoshi Horii, Co-editor of Method and Theory in the Study of Religion

Mitsutoshi HoriiMitsutoshi Horii joined the editorial team for Method and Theory in the Study of Religion (a peer reviewed, quarterly journal of the North American Association for the Study of Religion, published by Brill) a few months ago, working with Steven Ramey (professor and graduate director in our program) and Aaron Hughes (professor at University of Rochester).* Dr. Horii is Professor at Shumei University, Japan, and currently serves as Principal at Shumei’s overseas campus in the UK, Chaucer College. Beyond his current faculty position, we wanted to get to know more about his research and interests in relation to method and theory, and he graciously agreed to answer our questions. Continue reading

God Bless America

God Bless America

By Katie Brinser

Katie Brinser is from Lindenhurst, IL.  She is a senior majoring in International Studies and Finance with a minor in Arabic Language and Culture.  This post was originally written for Eleanor Finnegan‘s REL 370 class

In September, Pope Francis visited the United States and became the first pope to address the US Congress. In his address, Pope Francis emphasized the importance of social responsibility and political activity. He called on the American people to “serve and promote the good of the human person and be based on respect for his or her dignity”, and used the Declaration of Independence to justify why the American people must act in this manner. Pope Francis did not speak only as a religious figure, but as a political activist addressing current issues such as the immigration crisis, death penalty, youth violence, and ongoing conflicts throughout the world. He spoke about the rich heritage of America and how this heritage is a call to action to help with the world’s problems.

Jose Casanova, as summarized in Talal Asad’s Formation of the Secular, argues that in order for a nation-state to be modern religion must be separate from politics and should not play a significant role in social issues. While, no one disagrees that the United States is a modern nation, it is also clear that religion plays a role in politics.

Religion not only exists in the political sphere, but is welcomed, as the invitation for Pope Francis to speak to congress demonstrates. Talal Asad proposes that secularism is not the deprivation of religion, but secularism privileges certain religions that are seen as compatible with modernity. It is becoming increasingly difficult, to separate politics and religion from the personal sphere. In fact, Asad even argues that the concept of secularism has produced its own imagined community. For the modernization of the secular life cannot occur without the changing of the religious sphere. Secularism’s history uses a religious context to free itself from the world and create a sphere where human responsibility is seen as the answer to all events. Secularism is set in its own domain where the public and private spheres have created demarcated spaces in which religion and politics can exist. These spheres in reality, however, are constantly intertwined as observed with the Pope addressing Congress.

Pope Francis’s invitation to speak demonstrates the privilege certain religions have in the secular nation-state of America. Pope Francis’s speech is filled with references towards God, Christianity, and the ways in which it can enact political change. While there are no questions about the modernity of America, the same is not usually said for Middle Eastern countries that also have a predominant religion. These countries, where the religious and political spheres are intertwined, are condemned for being non-secular and labeled as backwards because of their inability to progress towards modern times. In the same breath, many Americans greeted Pope Francis with praise and excitement while they condemned non-Western or by extension non-Christian nations for having their faith interfere with politics.

That is not to say that Pope Francis’s arrival should be condemned as well or that he has no right addressing congress due to secularism, but this event contextualizes the way Americans react to Christianity in politics as compared to other faiths. America’s own history demonstrates the influence religion has in the secularization or freeing of a nation sate. Muqtedar Khan’sAmerican Exceptionalism and American Muslims” explains that American exceptionalism is the idea that America is a unique nation, blessed by God. This exceptionalism leads to hypocrisy, because the U.S. welcomes the Head of the Catholic Church to speak to our legislators because he is decisively Christian, while also being fearful of Islam infiltrating our politics. It also highlights the issue in which Pope Francis specifically calls on Americans to help with concerns that are not necessarily their own. There is a savior and interventionist mentality prevalent throughout the Pope’s speech that speaks to America’s sense of exceptionalism and its expansive empire, whether real or imagined. There is this mentality in the West, specifically in American society that it is modern and secular and is therefore immune to overzealous faith in politics, while the East and Eastern religions cannot exercise the same restraint.

Indeed, Pope Francis’s remarks called for a deepened sense of compassion and understanding throughout the world. His speech touched upon many current crises around the world and how action is needed. Nevertheless, his speech while well intentioned serves to highlight the way in which Americans view religion and politics.

“Tonight We May be Showmen; Tomorrow We’ll be Servicing Your Cars”

Picture 3A few days ago I was online discussing with a grad of our Department how advertising works in media — i.e., how it is not difficult to understand the content of, say, a newspaper, website, or television as simply serving the role of bringing the eyes of readers or viewers (in fact, let’s just call them consumers) to the ads which finance the medium in the first place. (In this day and age of cable fees and Netflix or Hulu subscriptions it’s likely hard for some to believe that TV was originally just cast broadly, like seeds [aka “broadcast”] over the so-called airwaves for free and anyone with an antenna and receiver [that is, a television set] got it for free.) It’s an old analysis, of course, one I first recall thinking about in earnest when watching, “Manufacturing Consent” back when the film first came out, in Toronto, back in 1992. (The entire documentary is here.)

To sum it up we can quote Chomsky himself: Continue reading